SCORE Consortium

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SCORE Research & Development Tools

This is a brief list of the tools that have been most helpful in our work for incorporating the 10 points outlined in Blankenship and Leber's (1995) responsible approach. For references of literature cited below, see footnotes.

Key Articles (click here)

Species selection for stock enhancement

  • facilitated workshop with stakeholders to identify and rank species-selection criteria
  • stock assessment results used to identify trends in abundance and fishing mortality
  • poll of stakeholders to generate species pool
  • meetings with stakeholders and experts to grade species on each selection criterion
  • spreadsheet to compile results
  • use of EnhanceFish decision support tool for quantitative assessment of enhancement potential
  • facilitated workshop to present results and seek concensus among stakeholders
  • see Leber (1994), Lorenzen (2006), Pruder et al. (1999)

Integrating stock enhancement with fishery management plans

  • workshops with fishery managers and stakeholders to examine stock-enhancement potential
  • use of EnhanceFish decision support tool for quantitative assessment of enhancement potential
  • involvement of fishery managers and stock assessment scientists in the planning process
  • see Lorenzen (1995, 2008) and Medley and Lorenzen (2006)

Defining measures of success

  • list of stakeholder and agency expectations from stocking
  • use of EnhanceFish decision support tool for quantitative assessment of enhancement potential
  • quantitative estimate of stocking effect on stock abundance and fishery landings
  • field assessment of stocking effect on stock abundance and fishery
  • economic evaluation of stocking effect on fishery and industry economic output
  • understanding of tradeoffs involved in stocking programs
  • see Lorenzen (2008), Walters and Martell (2004)

Genetic resource management

  • Microsatellite DNA and Bayesian approach for tracking hatchery releases
  • See Tringali (2006), Tringali et al. (2007), Tringali and Leber (1999)

Fish Production, disease and health management

  • fish health checks by certified veterinarians during the rearing process and prior to release

Behavioral, biological & ecological considerations

Identifying stocked organisms & evaluating stocking effect

empirical process for defining optimal release strategies

economic & policy guidelines & stakeholder outreach

Adaptive-management process to control stocking effectiveness

Selected recommended key initial readings

  1. Blankenship, H. L. and K. M. Leber. 1995. A responsible approach to marine stock enhancement. In Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:165-175. pdf file  >>read now...
  2. Bell, J.D., K.M. Leber, H.L. Blankenship, N.R. Loneragan and R. Masuda. 2008. A new era for restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching of coastal fisheries resources. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16: 1-8. pdf file  >>read now...
  3. Bell, J.D., D.M. Bartley, K. Lorenzen and N.R. Loneragan (Eds) (2006) Restocking and stock enhancement of coastal fisheries: Potential, problems and progress. Fisheries Research, 80:1-8.
  4. Bell, J. D., P. C. Rothlisberg, J. R. Monro, N. R. Loneragan, W. J. Nash, R. D. Ward, and N. L. Andrew (eds) (2005) Restocking and Stock Enhancement of Marine Invertebrate Fisheries, Advances in Marine Biology, 49:1-370.
  5. Lorenzen, K. 2008. Understanding and managing enhancement fisheries systems. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16: 10-23. pdf file  >>read now...
  6. Medley, P.A.H. and Lorenzen, K. 2006. EnhanceFish: A decision support tool for aquaculture-based fisheries enhancement. Imperial College/DFID. >> read more
  7. Lorenzen, K. 2005. Population dynamics and potential of fisheries stock enhancement: practical theory for assessment and policy analysis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 360: 171-189. pdf file >>read now...
  8. Lorenzen, K. (1995) Population dynamics and management of culture-based fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology 2: 61-73
  9. Leber, K. M. 2004. Marine Stock Enhancement in the USA: Status, trends and needs. Pp 11-24 In Leber, K.M., S. Kitada, T. Svåsand and H.L. Blankenship (eds) Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching: Developments, Pitfalls and Opportunities. 2nd Edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 562 pp.  pdf file  >>read now...
  10. Leber, K. M. 2002. Advances in marine stock enhancement: shifting emphasis to theory and accountability. Pp 79-90 In Stickney, R. R. and J. P. McVey (eds) Responsible Marine Aquaculture CABI Publishing, New York.  pdf file  >>read now...
  11. Leber, K. M. 1999. Rationale for an Experimental Approach to Stock Enhancement. Pages 63-75 in Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching (Ed. by B.R. Howell, E. Moksness, and T. Svåsand) Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. 606 pages.  pdf file  >>read now...
  12. Leber, K.M., R.N. Cantrell and PS. Leung. (2005)  Optimizing cost-effectiveness of size at release in stock enhancement programs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25:1596-1608.
  13. Zohar, Y., A.H. Hines, O. Zmora, E.G. Johnson, R.N. Lipcius, R.D. Seitz, D.B. Eggleston, A.R. Place, E.J. Schott, J.D. Stubblefield and J.S. Chung. 2008. The Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab: (Callinectes sapidus): A multidisciplinary approach to responsible stock enhancement. Reviews in Fishery Science 16(1-3):24-34.  see Abstract
  14. Coleman, F., J. Travis and A.B. Thistle (eds) (1998) Marine stock enhancement: a new perspective. Bulletin of Marine Science 62(2):303-714.
  15. Hilborn, R. (1999) Confessions of a reformed hatchery basher. Fisheries 24(5):30-31.
  16. Munro J. L. & J.D. Bell (1997) Enhancement of Marine Fisheries Resources. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 5(2), 185-222.
  17. Tringali, M. D., T. M. Bert, F. Cross, J. W. Dodrill, L . M. Gregg, W. G. Halstead, R. A. Krause, K. M. Leber, K. Mesner, W. Porak, D. Roberts, R. Stout and D. Yeager. 2007. Genetic Policy for the Release of Finfishes in Florida. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute Publication No. IHR-2007-001.  pdf file  >>read now...
  18. Tringali, M.D. and K. M. Leber. 1999. Genetic considerations during the experimental and expanded phases of snook stock enhancement. Bull. National Research Institute Aquaculture (Japan) Suppl. 1:109-119.  pdf file  >>read now...
  19. Walters, C.J. and S.J.D. Martell. 2004. Fisheries Ecology and Management. Princeton University Press. Princeton. 399 pp.


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